Study watersheds are located in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of northeastern Puerto Rico, which is known locally as the El Yunque National Forest. As an NSF-funded LTER and CZO site, as well as a USGS WEBB site. considerable data describing the biota, biology, geology, and disturbance regime of the Luquillo Mountains are available. The geology is of volcanic origin and rainfall is heavy and dependent on elevation. The streams are mostly steep and well shaded with little dissolved organic matter due to rapid terrestrial decomposition. Hurricanes are the main form of disturbance, which can open up the canopy and provide nutrients to the stream.